Petroleum products can be obtained from the extraction of crude oil.This crude oil has to be refined since on its own it has various types of hydrocarbons mixed up that cannot be used as it is. Therefore fractional distillation is performed to separate and identify each of these mixtures at various boiling points to achieve end products that are useful and having their own properties.Most of petroleum products are various types of fuel, and also can often be used in the composition of other products.
Gasoline , also called Petrol ,is a transparent liquid obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil. It is used in internal combustion engines of vehicles, electrical generators, and compressors.
Kerosene, often called paraffin, is mostly used as jet fuel and for lighting fire such as cooking, fire toys, and lighting purposes. It is also used as a mixture in cosmetics in its liquid state. The boiling range for Kerosene is between 150 ⁰C to 275 ⁰C
- Lubricating Oils
Also known as mineral oils, lubricants are used to reduce the friction between moving parts and to prevent corrosion. Lubricants contain 90 percent base oil and less than 10 percent additives. The boiling range for lubricants is between 300 ⁰C (572 ⁰F) to 370 ⁰C (700 ⁰F).
- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
LPG is a flammable liquid that is a combination of various hydrocarbons. It is used in heating appliances, in vehicles, and as a refrigerant. The most common forms of LPG are propane and butane. Its boiling range is less than 25 ⁰C.
- Diesel and Gasoline
Diesel and gasoline are used as vehicle fuel. Diesel and gasoline engines are pretty much the same except for how combustion happens in the engine. Diesel, however, is now preferred because it contains less sulfur in it.
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Petrochemicals are classified as olefins and aromatics. These sub classes are obtained by using catalytic cracking. Petrochemicals are used everywhere, in fertilizers, plastic bottles, detergents, food additives, synthetic shoes, and dyes.